Mahua Tree Farming | How to Cultivate Mahua?
Mahua has been the main source of income of people living in tribal areas since ancient times. Today it is being cultivated commercially in different states of the country. Due to this the income of farmers is increasing.
That’s why the village farmer will give information about Mahua farming in his own language in this article today. So that the farmer’s brother can get a good income by cultivating it.
Importance of Mahua Tree
Mahua is one of the most important food items of tribal communities in India. Its flowers and fruits grow in summer.
Tribal communities of the country use it as food when there is a shortage of food and other food items.
Mahua tree is essential for employment and food for the rural tribal people living in the remote forest areas of central and western India.
Mahua is known by different local names in different states. It is known as Mowra in Hindi, Indian butter tree in English, Madhuka in Sanskrit, Gudpushpa etc.
Benefits of Mahua
The fruit of mahua is a brownish saffron-coloured ripe fleshy berry containing 1 to 4 shiny seeds. 70% of the weight of the kernel remains inside the seed.
The amount of oil (mahua oil) found in its seeds ranges from 33 to 43 percent. Its oil is called mahua butter or cocoa butter.
Its oil is used in confectionery, chocolate industry, grease making, jute and candle industry.
Apart from this, its oil is used medicinally in skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, constipation, piles etc.
The people of the tribal community eat it as food and bring it to light.
Different types of food like raskutka, mahuakholi, mahua biscuit, dobhari, halwa, laddoo, makhani, jam etc. are made from mahua flowers.
Mahua leaves are used as fodder for goats, sheep and cattle.
Commercially, mahua flowers are used to make native liquor (mahua liquor). 340 liters of alcohol is obtained from one ton of flowers.
The petals of the Mahua flower yield an oil with an undesirable odor. In which penicillin, betaine, malic and succinic acids are found.
A decoction of the bark of the Mahua tree is used for arthritis and joint pain and in diabetes and other diseases.
Mahua fruits are also used as vegetables. Its fruits are cooked with garlic and onion to make a vegetable.
Mahua fruits have lots of fiber (55-65%), some protein (10-15%), minerals (1.8-2.4%), vitamin C (51-74 mg), and vitamin A (586-890 IU) in every 100 grams.
Origin and area of Mahua Tree
The scientific name of Mahua tree is Madhuca longifolia. It is a plant of Sepotaceae family. Its English name is Butternut Tree (Indian Butter Tree). Its origin is originally in India. In the world, its trees are found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar and India.
In India, it is mainly found in abundance in the states of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan etc.
Climate and soil for Mahua Tree
Mahua tree requires dry tropical climate for good growth. It requires a temperature of 20 to 46 degrees. And 550 to 1500 m of annual rainfall is required. For this, the light of the sun is very dear.
Mahua can be cultivated in almost all soils. But deep smooth sandy or sandy loam soil is suitable for good yield. Apart from this, it can be easily grown in stony, peaty, salty and alkaline soil.
Propagation Method of Mahua Tree
Propagation of Mahua plant can be done by cuttings from seeds. Its seeds should be collected in June and August. After this the seeds should be sown.
Keep in mind that before sowing the seeds, put the seeds in hot water (80 to 100 centigrade) and cool it quickly. Then it should be immersed in it for 24 hours.
Method for preparing Mahua nursery
- Preparing the nursery in the beds
Mahua plants are prepared in beds in rainy days. For this, the treated seeds should be sown at 2 cm depth in lines at 10 cm X 10 cm intervals. After sowing the beds should be irrigated. Seeds begin to grow 10 to 15 days after planting.
- Prepare nursery in polythene bags
15 cm X 25 cm size bags are taken to prepare the nursery in mahua polythene bags. These bags should be filled with an appropriate ratio of 3:1:1 mixture of soil, compost and sand and should be deposited in the nursery bed. Treated seeds should be sown in these bags at a depth of 2 cm. When germination occurs, irrigation should be done after 2 to 3 days.
Mahua Plants Transplanting Method
Planting of Mahua plants is done in the May-June month of the summer season. For this, 60 cm X 60 cm X 60 cm size pit should be dug keeping a distance of 7 meters from row to row and 7 meters from plant to plant.
After this, these pits should be left open in the sun. Mahua plants prepared in polythene are planted in prepared pits from July to September.
Manure and Fertilizer for Mahua Plants
Manure and fertilizer should be given properly for good growth of Mahua plants. Its one-year plants need 10 kg of cow dung, 200 grams of urea, 300 grams of single super phosphate and 125 grams of muriate of potash.
At the time of planting of plants in the month of July, dung manure mixed with single super phosphate and potash should be filled in the pits.
The amount of urea should be divided into two equal parts and 100 grams of urea should be applied to the plants after one month of planting and 100 grams of urea after two months of planting.
The said amount of fertilizers should be given in the same way for 10 years.
Irrigation in Mahua
Mahua plants are irrigated at different times. Such as the dry season, i.e. the shedding of leaves, the beginning of flowering (March to April) and the onset of fruit (May) should be known.
If irrigation is done in these conditions then the yield also increases. However, in Mahua for the first 2 to 3 years, the first 4 irrigations at 5-day intervals from November to March and 3 irrigations at 30-day intervals after March, plants and roots grow properly.
Flowering and fruiting in Mahua
Flowering in Mahua plants takes place between February and March after autumn. It has 10 to 60 flowers in a bunch. Due to low pollination, only 8% to 13% of the fruit can be formed. And other flowers fall on the ground.
Its fruit ripening time is from the third week of May to the end of June. The seeds are removed from these fruits by cracking them within a week. Otherwise, the seed will germinate inside itself.
Kernels are extracted from its seeds. And about 6% moisture is collected in jute bags. Later the oil is extracted from this kernel.
Production of mahua
100 to 150 kg of dried sweet fruits are obtained from one Mahua tree every year. If we talk about seeds to get oil, then about 60 kg of seeds are obtained from one tree every year.
Question : Mahua tree is ready in how many days?
Answer : Mahua starts bearing fruit only in 4-5 years.
Question: How is the Mahua tree planted?
Answer: Mahua plants are planted in May-June of the summer season. For this, 60 cm X 60 cm X 60 cm size pit should be dug keeping a distance of 7 meters from row to row and 7 meters from plant to plant.
Question : What is the rate of Mahua in Chhattisgarh?
Answer: Mahua is being sold at Rs 43 per kg in the open market this year, compared to Rs 25 last year.
Question: Mahua how much rupees a kilo is running?
Answer: In UP, the price of mahua is 40 to 45 rupees per kg, while in Chhattisgarh it is sold at 50 rupees per kg.
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